Flowchart Konversi Bilangan Decimal Ke Binary Options




Flowchart Konversi Bilangan Decimal Ke Binary OptionsBinary Tree PENDAHULUAN Seiring percambanan zaman kebutuhan akan teknologi dan tempat untuk menyimpan dados secara tepat dan memperkecil waktu yang diperlukan untuk memproses data. Dados da estrutura terbagi menjadi dua, yaitu. Struktur dados linear dan struktur dados nao linear. Untuk informasi yang cepat dan akurat terus meningkat. Computador de mao seta de computador portatil e um computador portatil. Komputer selain dapat mempercepat masalah-masalah yang kompleks dan memerlukan banyak memori struktur dados nao linear menjadi pilihan yang tepat untuk digunakan. Tree sebagai salah satu jenis struktur dados nao linear banyak diterapkan dalam mempermudah pekerjaan jugar dapat digunakan untuk menghitung, mengingat, serta menyimpan dados. Dengan kamampuan komputer, semakin yang masalah banyaknya olha harus dimiliki yang bidang Ilmu komputer. Diselesaikannya semakin besar dan kompleks. Untuk menyelesaikan yang kompleks Identifikasi Masalah binario arvore merupakan masalah-masalah himpunan simpul terbatas dimana salah satu simpul bisa kosong atau berisi dua pohon yang terpisah yang disebut subtree di kiri dan kanannya. Jumlah maksimum tingkatan dari binario Arvore adalah dua, jika ada penambahan dilakukan penelusurano tersebut diperlukan sebuah algoritma yang efisien. Keefisienan algoritma ditentukan oleh dados pemilihan struktur dalam pembangunan algoritma tersebut. Dados da estante yang baik haruslah dapat mengalokasikan 1 dari kiri ke kanan yang ditetapkan sebagai subtree. Arvore de busca binaria adalah 4. Algoritma pada binario arvore dan binario busca arvore yang akan kompleksitasnya dibahas hanya binario arvore dengan sifat bahwa semua esquerda crianca harus lebih kecil dari pada direito crianca dan Pai nya. Juga semua direita crianca harus lebih besar dari esquerda crianca serta Pai Nya. Batasan Masalah Untuk pembahasan memfokuskan masala, maka algoritma operais pencarian Maksud dan Tujuan Maksud dan Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dari penulisan tugas akhir ini adalah. 1. Membandingkan kinerja dari struktur arvore binaria dan pembahasan diberikan pembatasan sebagai berikut. 1. pesquisa binaria arvore dalam hal dados pencarian Hanya membahas, sehingga kompleksitas pada dua Jenis arvore struktur, yaitu arvore binaria dan pesquisa binaria arvore 2. Dados Jumlah yang diinputkan dibatasi dari 1-100 dados 3. Kompleksitas yang dibahas hanya kompleksitas waktu mengenai dapat diketahui Struktur arvore mana untuk yang lebih efisien dalam digunakan proses dados pencarian. 2. memberikan gambaran secara visual struktur binario arvore dan binario manual datanya. Pesquisa arvore yang secara diinputkan 2 Metodologi Penelitian Metodologi yang digunakan Struktur dados dapat dibedakan menjadi dua jenis, yaitu. Struktur dados lineares (matriz, pilha, dan fila) dan struktur dados nao lineares (arvore dan grafico). tidak nao linear Seringkali dados struktur selalu tepat untuk dalam penyusunan tugas akhir ini adalah studi literatur, yaitu metodologi penelitian dengan Cara membaca berbagai maupun dan membandingkan baik internet buku yang referensi, meios-programa programa yang kebutuhan memorinya selalu bertambah Selama eksekusi programa tersebut. Struktur dados nao-linear menjadi pilihan alternatif, karena struktur dados berhubungan dengan kompleksitas binario arvore dan binario pesquisa arvore. LANDASAN TEORI STRUKTUR DATA Dados do merupakan salah satu bahan dasar pembuatan tersebut dapat mengalokasikan dan mendealokasikan dinamis, kebutuhan dieksekusi yaitu pada variabel sesuai saat secara dengan programa dapat programa. Programa yang baik hanya dapat dihasilkan dari struktur dados yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan sehingga mengefisiensikan memori. Penggunaan aplikasi, karena programa yang baik adalah sebuah ketiga program yang arvore de arvores merupakan salah satu memenuhi karakteristik, yaitu. Efisiensi, kecepatan, dan fleksibilitas. Bentuk struktur dados nao lineares yang menggambarkan hubungan yang 3 bersifat elemen. Sebagai hirarkis Arvore de antara elemen - Binary arvore mempunyai berbagai jenis, yaitu. 1. completa Binary arvore completa arvore binaria adalah arvore binaria yang TIAP nodenya (folha kecuali) memiliki dua crianca dan TIAP sub Harus panjang bisa didefinisikan simpul / node Kumpulan dengan satu elemen Khusus yang disebut ROOT dan no Mistos terbagi menjadi Himpunan-Himpunan yang Saling tidak Berhubungan satu sama lainnya (subarvore) ARVORE BINARIA caminho mempunyai yang sama Arvore binaria adalah arvore dengan syarat bahwa tiap no bisa kosong atau maksimal memiliki dua subtree dan kedua subtree harus terpisah. Sesuai dengan definisi tersebut, maka tiap nodo dalam binario arvore hanya boleh memiliki paling banyak dua crianca. A B D E F G G G A R 2.4. Completa arvore binaria 2. Completa arvore binaria Arvore binaria completa Migram dengan arvore binaria completa, namun tiap subtree Jenis arvore binaria boleh memiliki panjang 4 caminho yang berbeda. node (folha de kecuali) memiliki 0 atau 2 crianca BUSCA BINARIA ARVORE Arvore de pesquisa binaria arvore binaria Dengan sifat bahwa semua esquerda crianca harus lebih kecil daripada direita crianca dan parentnya. Juga semua direita crianca harus lebih besar dari esquerda crianca serta parentnya. Pesquisa binaria 3. Arvore Binaria Inclinada Arvore Binaria Inclinada Arvore Arvore binaria inclinada arvore binaria arvore binaria arvore binaria arvore binaria arvore binaria arvore dalam dalam. Adalah binario arvore yang semua no nya (kecuali folha) hanya memiliki satu crianca. A ta u KOMPLEKSITAS ALGORITMA Gambar 2.6. Skewed Binary Tree ARVORE Kompleksitas merupakan fungsi algoritma f (n) yang mengukur waktu dan ruang yang 5 digunakan oleh sebuah algoritma menurut ukuran atau banyaknya dados yang diinputkan (n). Kompleksitas sebuah ALGORITMA biasanya kebutuhan waktu rata-rata yang diperlukan Hal yang sering diperhatikan dalam kompleksitas ALGORITMA adalah pada kasus terburuk (pior caso), yaitu, keperluan waktu maksimum dari Semua Masalah dengan ukuran entrada yang sama. Dinyatakan, dalam, bentuk, notasi, Big, O, yang, memberikan, orde, dari, suatu, fungsi, untuk, yang, besar. Untuk semua masalah dalam ukuran tertentu terdapat beberapa perbedaan. uma. Kompleksitas waktu untuk kasus terburuk kebutuhan (pior caso waktu), yaitu maksimum yang diperlukan b. Kompleksitas waktu untuk kasus terbaik (melhor caso), yaitu kebutuhan waktu minimo yang diperlukan c. Kompleksitas waktu untuk kasus rata-rata (caso medio), yaitu PERANCANGAN Diagrama Konteks 6 Diagrama perangkat Lunak konteks yang dari arvore binaria adalah Arvore dibangun dengan syarat bahwa TIAP no hanya Boleh memiliki maksimal dua digambarkan seperti di Bawah ini. Subtree dan kedua subtree tersebut S e te m P o h o n B em e harus terpisah. Sesuai dengan definisi tersebut maka tiap no (simpul) J u m la h P e r b an d a g a n a k tu B ila n g a n dalam arvore binaria hanya boleh memiliki paling banyak dua crianca. U ser Digram Konteks Sistem Pohon Biner Dados yang digunakan adalah dados yang berupa bilangan bulat, keluaran yang dihasilkan berupa banyaknya perbandingan waktu yang terjadi untuk menemukan bilangan yang dicari. Pencarian pada Binario Arvore Proses pencarian pada binario Arvore dilakukan ke setiap no sampai ditemukan kunci (X) yang dimaksud. Logika pencarian pada binary Arvore de Natal sebaui berikut. CariX arvore di binaria (T, X, ketemu) a. Jika kunci di akar (T) sama dengan X, ketemu true jika akar (T) sama dengan nill, ketemu falso Kompleksitas Algoritma Arvore binaria b. Jika X tidak sama dengan kunci (T) maka cari X di 7 binario (kiri (T), X, ketemu). Arvore Final Misalcan algoritma End Jika x tidak diketemukan pada (kiri (T)) maka cari X di binario (kanan (T), X, ketemu). Arvore de arvore de arvore, arvore de arvore, arvore de arvore, arvore de arvore, arvore de arvore, arvore de arvore, arvore de arvore, arvore de arvore, arvore de arvore. Procedimento CariX (T: pohonbiner X: infotipo ketemu. Booleano) Begin Se T nil entao Ketemu: falso Else Se info (T) X entao Ketemu: true Else Begin T: kiri (T) T: kanan (T) banyaknya data ).Sehingga kompleksitas wakti Asimptotiknya dapat ditulis. T (n) n atau T (n) T (n) O (n) Algoritma yang waktu pelaksanaannya lanjar. umumnya terdapat pada kasus yang setiap elemen masukkannya dikenai proses yang sama. bila n dijadikan dua kali semula, maka waktu Pelaksanaan algoritma juga dua kali semula Kompleksitas Algoritma Binario Pesquisar Arvore 8 Binario Pesquisar arvore adalah binario arvore dengan sifat bahwa semua esquerda filho harus lebih kecil dari pada direito crianca dan Pai nya. Juga semua direita crianca harus lebih besar dari crianca esquerda serta Pai nya. Jika akar (T) sama, dengan nill, ketemu falso b. Jika X kunci (T) maka cari X binario Arvore Pencarian pada Binario Arvore Proses pencarian pada binario Procurar Arvore dimulai dari akar. Jika bilangan yang dicari (X) tidak sama dengan bilangan di akar, pencarian dilanjutkan di subtree kiri atau di subtree kanan, Bergantung, apakah, bilangan, yang, dicari (X), lebih besar, atau, lebih, kecil, dari, bilangan, diat. Logika pencarian pada binario search Arvore adalah sebagai berikut. CariX di binario Arvore de pesquisa (kanan (T), X, ketemu). Kompleksitas waktu Asimptotik Dari logika pencarian kunci pada binario pesquisa arvore diatas maka dapat ditulis algoritmanya sebagai berikut. Procedimento CariX (T: pohonbiner X: infotipo ketemu. Booleano) Begin Se T nil entao Ketemu: false Else Se T. isi X entao (T, X, ketemu) a. Jika kunci di akar (T) sama dengan X, ketemu verdadeiro 9 Ketemu: true Else Se x T. isi entao cariX (T. kanan, ketemu) end Misalkan algoritma kompleksitas dihitung dari waktu jumlah X, X, waktunya berjalan lebihlambat dari pertumbuhan n. Algoritma yang termasuk kelompok ini adala algortma yang memecahkan persoalan besar dengan mentransformacoes menjadi beberak persoalan yang lebih kecil. fungsi registro n hanya meningkat menjadi dua kali semula jika n dinaikkan sebesar n2 kali semula. Perbandingan ALGORITMA operasi perbandingan (se info (T) X), maka kompleksitas pencarian pada arvore binaria dan pesquisa binaria arvore Kompleksitas waktu asimptotik dapat digunakan untuk asimptotiknya: T (n) O (2 log n) membandingkan dua buah ALGORITMA untuk diketahui ALGORITMA yang mana yang berkinerja Lebih baik. Algoritma pencarian T (n) O (2 log n) Kompleksitas waktu algoritmik. Berarti Laju pertumbuhan mempunyai asimptotiknya pada arvore binaria waktu O (n), kompleksitas T (n) Sedangkan pada pencarian Binary 10 Pesquisa Arvore kompleksitas waktu asimptotiknya T (n) O (2log n). Dilihat dari urutan spektrum kompleksitas waktu ALGORITMA, maka ALGORITMA dengan kompleksitas asimptotik O (2log n) Lebih Cepat atau memerlukan sedikit untuk waktu yang Lebih proses dengan melakukan pencarian ALGORITMA dibandingkan dengan kompleksitas asimptotik O (n). Dengan kata lain kinerja operasi pencarian binario pada Pesquisar Arvore lebih baik atau lebih cepat dibandingkan operasi pencarian pada arvore binaria. 11 DAFTAR PUSTAKA Jogiyanto, Turbo pascal versi 5.0, Penerbit Andi Deslocamento, Yogyakarta, 1998 Munir, Rinaldi, Struktur Dados de Algoritma Lanjut, Edison, Laboratorio Perakkat Lunak dan Sistem Informasi Teknik Informatika ITB, 1998 Sanjaya, Dwi, Bertualang dengan struktur Data di Planeta Pascal, JJ Aprendizagem, Yogyakarta Santosa, Insap, Struktur dados menggunakan Turbo Pascal 6.0, Penerbit Andi Offset, Yoogyakarta, 2000 12 relacionadosPada momen yang berbahagia ini, saya ingin coba menjabarkan tahap2 sederhana proses konversi bilangan desimal, biner, oktal heksadesimal. Bilangan desimal adalai bilangan yang menggunakan 10 imagens de mulai 0 imagens de sampai 9 berturut2. Seta angka 9, maka angka berikutnia adalah 10, 11, 12 dan seterusnya. Bilangan desimal disebut juga bilangan berbasis 10. Desconhecido penulisan bilangan desimal. 17 10. Ingat, desimal berbasis 10, maka angka 10-lah yang menjadi subscrito pada penulisan bilangan desimal. Bilangan bang adalah bilangan yang hanya menggunakan 2 angka, yaitu 0 dan 1. Bilangan biner juga bilbano bilbas 2. Setas bilangan panda bilangan biner disebut bit. Dimana 1 byte 8 bits. Contoh penulisan. 110111 2. Bilangan okal adalah bilangan berbasis 8, yang menggunakan angka 0 sampai 7. Contoh penulisan. 17 8. Bilangan heksadesimal. Atau bilangan heksa, atau bilangan base 16, menggunakan 16 buah simbol, mulai dari 0 sampai 9, kemudian dilanjut dari A sampai F. Jadi, angka A sampai F merupakan simbol untuk 10 sampai 15. Contoh penulisan. C5 16. Hmm. Sepertinya prolognya sudah cukup. Lanjut ke proses kalkulasi8230 8) Saya langsung saja ambil sebuah contoh bilangan desimal yang akan dikonversi ke biner. Seteah itu, akan saya, lakukan, konversi, masing2 bilangan desimal, biner, oktalia heksadesimal. Misalcan bilangan desimal yang ingin saya konversi adalah 25 10. Maka langkah, yang, dilakukan, adalah, membagi, tahap, demi, tahap, angka, 25, 10, tersebut, dengan 2, seperti, berikut: Jawaban di atas memang, tapi bukan tahapan yang kita inginkan. Tahapan yang tepat untuk melakukan pros konversi ini sebagai berikut: 25 2 12 sisa 1. 82128211gt Sampai disini masih mengerti kan de Langkah selanjutnya adalah membagi de angka 12 de 2 de tersebut de dengan 2 lagi. Hasilnya sebagai berikut: 12. 2 6 sisa 0. 82128211gt Ingat, selalu tulis sisanya. Proses tersebut dilanjutkan sampai angka yang hendak dibagi adalah 0, sebagai berikut: 25. 2 12 sisa 1. 0. 2 0 sisa 08230. (fim) Nah, setelah didapat perhitungan tadi, pertanyaan berikutnya adala, hasil konversinya yang mana Ya, hasil konversinya Adalah urutan seluruh, sisa-sisa, perhitungan, tela, diperoleh, dimulai dari bawah ke atas. Maka hasilnya adalah 011001 2. Angka 0 di awal tidak porlu ditulis, sehingga hasilnya menjadi 11001 2. Sip Lanjut8230..sekarang saya akan menjelaskan konversi bilangan desimal ke oktal. Proses konversinya mirip dengan proses konversi desimal ke biner, hanya saja kali em pembaginya adalah 8. Misalkan angka yang ingin saya konversi adala 33 10. Maka: 0. 8 0 sisa 08230. (end) Sekarang tata waktunya untuk mengajarkan proses konversi desimal ke heksadesimal 8230 Palavras-chave para esta foro. Hehe8230 Misalcan bilangan desimal yang ingin saya ubah adalah 243 10. Untuk menghitung proses konversinya, caranya sama saja dengan proses konversi desimal ke biner, hanya saja kali em angka pembaginya adalah 16. Maka: 243. 16 15 sisa 3. 15. 16 0 sisa F. 8212-gt ingat, 15 diganti jadi F. 0. 16 0 sisa 08230. (fim) Nah, maka hasil konversinya adalah F3 16. Mudah, bukan 8) Sekarang kita berali ke konversi bilangan biner ke desimal. Proses konversi bilangan biner ke bilangan desimal adala proses perkalian setiap bit pada bilangan biner dengan perpangkatan 2, dimana perpangkatan 2 tersebut berurut dari kanan ke kiri bit bernilai 2 o sampai 2 n. Langsung saja saya ambil contoh bilangan yang merupakan hasil perhitungan di atas, yaitu 11001 2. Misalcan bilangan tersebut saya ubah posisinya mulai dari kanan kiri menjadi seperti ini. Nah, saatnya mengalikan, setiap bit, dengan perpangkatan 2. Ingat, perpangkatan 2 tersebut berurut mulai dari 2 o sampai 2 n. Untuk setiap pouco mulai dari kanan ke kiri. Maka: 1 82128212gt 1 x 2 o 1 0 82128212gt 0 x 2 1 0 0 82128212gt 0 x 2 2 0 1 82128212gt 1 x 2 3 8 1 82128212gt 1 x 2 4 16 8212gt perhatikan nilai perpangkatan 2 nya semakin ke bawah semakin besar Maka hasilnya Adalah 1 0 0 8 16 25 10. Nao, bandingkan hasil ini dengan angka desimal yang saya ubah ke biner di awal tadi. Sama bukan Sudah ini, sudah itu, sekarang8230.nah, konversi bilangan biner ke oktal. Hehe8230siap Nenhum banco de fotografias, fotos e clipes livres de direitos autorais de acordo com o seguinte problema 3 dari bilangan biner. Maka jitsu kita memiliki bilangan biner 110111 2 yang ingin dikonversi ke bilangan oktal, langkah pertama yang kita lakukan adala memilah-milah bilangan biner tersebut, setiap bagian 3 bits. Mulai dannan kanan ke kiri, sekhmet menjadi seperti berikut: Sengaja saya buat agak berjarak, supaya lebih mudah dimengerti. Nao, setelah dilakukan proses pemilah2an seperti ini, dilakukan proses konversi ke desimal terlebih dahulu secara terpisah. 110 dikonversi menjadi 6, dan 111 dikonversi menjadi 7. Hasilnya kemudian digabungkan, menjadi 67 8. Yang merupakan bilangan oktal dari 110111 2 8230 8) 8220Tapi, itu kan kebetulan bilangan binernya nao 6 bits. Jadi dipilah2 3 pun masih pas. Gimana kalau bilangan binernya, contohnya, 5 bit 8221 Hehe8230Gampang..Contohnya 11001 2. 5 bit kan Sebenarnya pemilah2an itu dimulai dari kanan ke kiri. Jadi hasilnya 11 dan 001. Ini kan sebenarnya sudah bisa masing2 diuba ke dalam bentuk desimal. Tapi kalau mau, menambah, kenyamanan di mata, tambaiin aja 1 angka 0 de depannya. Jadi 011001 2. Tidak akan merubah hasil perhitungan kok. Tinggal dipilah2 seperti tadi. Okeh Selanjutnya adalai konversi bilangan biner ke heilsadesimal. Hmm8230sebagai contoh, misalnya saya ingin ubah 11100010 2 imagens de ke bentuk heksadesimal. Proses konversinya juga tidak begitu rumit, hanya tinggal memilahkan bit 2 tersebut menjadi kelompok2 4 bit. Pemilahan dimulai dari kanan kiri ke, sehingga hasilnya sbb: Nah, coba lihat bit 2 tersebut. Konversilah bit 2 tersebut ke desimal terlebih dahulu satu persatu, seharga didapat: 1110 14 dan 0010 2 Nah, ingat kalau 14 itu dilambangkan apa di heksadesimal Ya, 14 dilambangkan dengan E 16. Dengan demikian, hasil konversinya adalah E2 16. Seperti tadi juga, gimana kalau bilangan binernya tidak berjumlah 8 bits. Contohnya 110101 2. Yaa8230Seperti tadi juga, tambahin aja 0 di depannya. Tidak akan membro pengaruh apa2 kok ke hasilnya. Jadi setelah ditambah menjadi 00110101 2. Selanjutnya, sudah gampang kan Selanjutnya, konversi bilangan ok desimal ke. Hal ini tidak terlalu sulit. Tinggal kalikan saja setiap bilangan dengan perpangkatan 8. Contoh, bilangan oktal yang akan dikonversi adalah 71 8. Maka susunannya saya buat menjadi demikiano: dan proses perkaliannya sbb: Maka hasilnya adalah penjumlahan 1 56 57 10. Este hospede nao esta disponivel ou esta classificado como o proprietario do katya. Hehe .. Langsung ke contoh. Miscalan saya ingin mengubah Adicionar comentario sobre o album. Maka langkah yang saya lakukan adala melakukan proses konversi setiap bilangan terse mas masing2 ke 3 bit bilangan biner. Nao, angka 5 jika dikonversi ke biner menjadi8230. 101 2. Sorvo Nao, 7, jika dikonversi ke biner menjadi8230 111 2. Mantap. Maka hasilnya adalah 101111 2. Jamin benar deh8230. Hmm8230berarti8230sekarang giliran konversi oktal ke heksadesimal. Para sua comodidade, disponibilizamos uma traducao automatica: Pergunte, perguntando a si mesmo. Maksudnya Maksudnya adalah kita, konversi, dulu, ok, ke biner, lalu, konversikan, nilai, biner, tersebut, ke, nilai, heksadesimalnya. Nah, baik yang konversi ok, ke biner, maupun, biner, ke heksadesimal, kan, udah, dijelaskan. Coba buktikan, bahwa bilangan oktal 72 8 dias atras 3 dias atras 16. Bisa kan Bisa dong8230 Palavras-chave para esta foro Selanjutnya adalah konversi bilangan heksadesimal ke desimal. Untuk proses konversi ini, caranya sama saja dengan proses konversi biner ke desimal, hanya saja kali ini perpangkatan yang digunakan adalah perpangkatan 16, bukan perpangkatan 2. Sebagai contoh, saya akan melakukan konversi bilangan Heksa C8 16 ke bilangan desimal. Maka saya Ubah dulu susunan bilangan Heksa tersebut, Mulai dari kanan ke kiri, sehingga menjadi sebagai berikut: dan kemudian dilakukan proses perkalian dengan perpangkatan 16, sebagai berikut: C x 16 1 192 82128212gt ingat, C 16 merupakan lambang dari 12 10 Maka Hasil diperolehlah Konversinya bernilai 8 192 200 10. Tutorial berikutnya, konversi dari heksadesimal ke biner. Dalam proses konversi heksadesimal ke biner, setiap simbol dalam heksadesimal mewakili 4 bit diner biner. Misalnya saya ingin melakukan imagens relacionadas tem os seguintes formatos: B7 16 ke bilangan biner. Maka setiap simbolo de bilangan heksa tersebut saya konversi terpisah ke biner. Ingat, B 16 merupakan simbol untuk angka desimal 11 10. Nao, desimal 11 10 jika dikonversi ke biner menjadi 1011 2. Sedangkan desimal 7 10 jika dikonversi ke biner menjadi 0111 2. Maka bilangan binernya adalah 10110111 2. atau kalau dibuat ilustrasinya seperti berikut ini: B 7 8212-gt bentuk Heksa 11 7 8212-gt bentuk desimal 1011 0111 8212-gt bentuk biner Hasilnya disatukan, sehingga menjadi 10.110.111 2. Compreendido Yang terakhir adalah konversi heksadesimal ke oktal. Nah, sama seperti konversi oktal ke heksadesimal, kita membutuhkan bantuan bilangan biner. Lakukan e um dahulu konversi heksadesimal ke biner, lalu konversikan nilai biner tersebut ke oktal. Sebagai latihan, Estados Unidos da America Bate-papo no Bate-Papo E7 16 jika dikonversi ke oktal menjadi 347 8. Hehe8230Kamu bisa. Untuk memodahkan pencarian dan pembelajaran, saya cantumkan link ke artigo saya yang lain yang berhubungan dengan konversi bilangan. Kalau saya ada membuat artikel yang baru pada topik ini, akan saya cantumkan juga nanti. Silahkan dikunjungi. Kk yg baik ati8230 Nao ha comentarios sobre este aplicativo. Enviado originalmente em ingles em www. tripadvisor. in. Ver original gmn cerita awalnya. oh iya, mau tny lg ne8230 asal muasal konversi bilangan itu ap sp penciptanya trus tujuan dari adanya konversi bilangan ap thx kk yg baik bt jawabannya8230 mohon dijawab dgn TCP y kk, soalnya saya ad presentasi 1 hr lg8230 terimakasih8230 .. suhadi: Biasanya bilangan2 itu Direpresentasikan dalam 1 byte. 1 byte itu terdiri dari 8 bit. Jadi, kalau misalnya bilangan binning terdiri dari 3 bit, seperti 111, direpresentasikan jadi 00000111. Bilangan 0 de depan itu tidak membro pengaruh apa2, jadi kalau ditulis banyak2 juga ga masalah. Sama saja tuh, sebenarnya. Mengenai asal muasal, supaya referensinya lebih jelas, coba dilihat di wikipedia. Alamatnya di en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Binarynumeralsystem Ok Semoga membantu .. ito, aku mau dong pengkonversian dalam base bilangan bahasa c atau c, Tolong kirim ke email aku ya .. Butuh banget nih buat Belajar .. pak maaf mau Nanya nih ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Nanya lagi nich q kan dpt tugas tu disuruh ngitung hasil dari bilangan desimal keheksa desimal, trus heksa desimal ke desimal. Nah ni soalnya. desimal Heksa desimal 18 8230823082308230. 27 823082308230. 35 823082308230 8 823082308230 8230823082308230. 18 82308230. 2c 8230823082308230 f 823.082.308.230 2b Cara ngitung dan hasinya Tolong banget c kasih tau makasih banyak pak untuk artikelnya kebetulan saya ujian Matematika Minggu ini Pak, saya pengen Nanya. Kan konversi bilangan desimal ke oktal misalnya 33 (10) 82308230. (8) hasilnya 41 dan bilangan desimal ke hexadecimal 243 (10) 82308230. (16) F3 hasilnya (16) sesuai yang telah Bapak Diatas jelaskan. Nah, cara bahwa pembuktian 41 / F3 itu adala benar hasil dari konversi tersebut bagaimana caranya. Selain dengan Cara mengkonversi sebaliknya .. Mohon pencerahannya dan bantuannya, Terima Kasih .. 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On the next window, select a destination for the signed Options trading firms chicago and click Finish . katysha God how stupid I was to forget the name of that amazing medication that helped me cure impotence amphitrita Thanks a lot Lenka-Wolf Thanks to the author for this wonderful post land You abstract thinking sweet ATP yesterday lookedJf302 Ch 2 - FERROUS MATERIAL STRUCTURE AND BINARY ALLOY SYSTEM JF302 MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY 1 CHAPTER 2. FERROUS MATERIAL STRUCTURE AND BINARY ALLOY SYSTEM PREPARED BY. ZUREENA BINTI ABU SAMAH EDITED BY. MDM TAJ NESHA BEGAM BT BAISUL KHAN SUMMARY This topic introduces the methods of irons, steels and cast irons production. It also describes the structure, properties and the usage of irons, steels and cast irons in the engineering field. CLO 1. explain various types of materials used in manufacturing industry. (Cognitive Domain. C2 Comprehension ) SYLLABUS. FERROUS MATERIAL STRUCTURE AND BINARY ALLOY SYSTEM 2.1 Understand the metal production 2.1.1 State the content of iron ore a. Magnetite b. Iron carbonate c. Hematite d. Limonite 2.4 Describe the alloy steel 2.4.1 Define term and purpose of alloy steel 2.4.2 Explain elements in the alloy which influence steel properties. 2.4.3 Identify the characteristic of alloy steel a. Structure steel 2.1.2 Explain the process of iron production by b. Corrosion resistant steel using Blast Furnace c. Heat resistant steel 2.2 Understand the steel production d. Tool and mould steel e. Magnetic steel 2.2.1 Explain the process of steel production by 2.5 Describe the cast iron using these 2.5.1 Explain position of cast iron in iron-carbon methods phase diagram a. Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOP) b. Electric Arc Furnace 2.5.2 Explain of cast iron properties effect 2.3 Describe the plain carbon steel a. Cooling rate b. Carbon content 2.3.1 Sketch completely the different phases in c. Cross sectional area equilibrium phase diagram up to 1.7 carbon d. Element content 2.3.2 Differentiate between iron, steel and cast 2.5.3 Explain the characteristics and applications iron in the iron-carbon equilibrium phase of the cast iron diagram a. Grey cast iron b. White cast iron c. Black malleable cast iron d. White malleable cast iron e. Nodular cast iron LEARNING OUTLINE Understand metal production iron and steel Understand the process of iron and steel production Understand plain carbon Understand alloy steel Understand cast iron TOPIC IRON STEEL CAST IRON Iron (fe) Iron is an element and can be pure. Iron can be extracted from iron ores such as rocks, mineral. Classification of iron ores: Magnetite Iron Carbonate Hematite Limonite Iron is obtained by reducing iron oxides into metallic in blast furnaces. Basic constituent of steel. What is iron ore Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite, limonite or siderite. Iron ore is the raw material used to make molten iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. 2.2 Iron Ores Characteristics 1. GRADE containing as much as possible iron oxide 2. COMPACTABILITY not too compact or too brittle 3. PURITY containing as less as possible impurities 4. SIMILARITY containing similar composition to one another Hematite Limonite Magnetite Iron Ore Iron Ore Mining Magnetite Chemical Formula is (Fe3O4). Also called as Black Iron Ore - because the color is black. Percentage of Iron 72 62 Fe (Iron) Iron carbonate Also know as siderite Chemical formula (FeCO3) Its color is yellowish green Percentage of iron 35 40 Fe (Iron) HEmatite Chemical formula (Fe2O3) Also known as Red Iron Ore. Percentage of Iron 70 Fe (Iron). limonite Chemical formula is (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) Also known as Brown Iron Ore Flowchart of iron process Sintered iron ore Iron ore Called as Charge Coal Coke limestone Blast furnace The purpose of use blast furnace is to reduce and convert iron oxides into liquid iron called molten iron. The appearance of blast furnace is huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick. The blast furnace is around 30 metres high and lined with fireproof bricks. Iron ores, coke and limestone are put into the top and preheated air blown into the bottom. Iron can be extracted by blast furnace because it can be displaced by carbon. It more efficient and more cost effective. 2.3 Iron Production Process Blast Furnace Iron Ore is smelted in the Blast Furnace in order to remove unwanted impurities such as rocks, clay and sand, and also to separate the Iron from the Oxygen. The result is Iron which is about 95 pure. The remaining impurities are other elements which can be removed later if necessary. A Blast Furnace is about 100ft. high and produces abut 1000 tons of molten Iron a day. It is made from steel. Structure of Blast furnace The process of blast furnace To ensure the process of extraction there are combined mixture of substances needed and called as charge. Charge: Iron ore, hematite - often contains sand with iron oxide, Fe2O3. Limestone (calcium carbonate). Coke - mainly carbon The charge is placed a giant chimney called a blast furnace. The hot air that was blown into the bottom of the furnace ascends to the top in 6 to 8 seconds after going through numerous chemical reactions. Once a blast furnace is started it will continuously run for four to ten years with only short stops to perform planned maintenance. The principal process of blast furnace The principal process take place in blast furnace as follow:1) Evaporation of moisture 2) Evolution volatiles 3) Decomposition of carbonates 4) Reduction of oxides into metallic iron and other elements 5) Carburization of iron and formation of molten iron 6) Slag formation 7) Combustion of fuel Reaction of iron production Oxygen in the air reacts with coke to give carbon dioxide: C(s) O 2(g) CO2(g) The limestone breaks down to form carbon dioxide: CaCO3(s) CO2 (g) CaO(s) Carbon dioxide produced in 1 2 react with more coke to produce carbon monoxide: CO2(g) C(s) 2CO(g) The carbon monoxide reduces the iron in the ore to give molten iron: 3CO(g) Fe2O3(s) 2Fe(l) 3CO2(g) The limestone from 2, reacts with the sand to form slag (calcium silicate): CaO(s) SiO(s) CaSiO3(l) Reaction of iron production Both the slag and iron are drained from the bottom of the furnace. The slag is mainly used to build roads. The iron whilst molten is poured into moulds and left to solidify - this is called cast iron and is used to make railings and storage tanks. The rest of the iron is used to make steel. Chapter 2:Ferrous Metals 2.0 Iron Productions 1. Iron ores are main material in iron ingot production. 2. In mining process, the iron ore are in pure state. It also found other substances such as oxide, sulphade, sulphur, silicon, etc. along with STEEL STEEL Steel is an alloy of iron, containing up to 2 of carbon (usually up to 1). Its a combination of iron carbon( 0.01 1) Contains varying amounts of manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon 20 other alloys Alloys added to produce steel of different characteristics. To produce useful steel, molten iron need to be oxidized in another furnace at about 1650C. Molten iron is not useful because its weak and brittle although its very hard. FLOWCHART OF IRON AND STEELMAKING PROCESS FLOWCHART OF IRON AND STEELMAKING PROCESS Produces molten iron from iron ore Molten iron casting Flowchart of iron and steelmaking process Molten iron Steel production method The main steel making methods are: 1) Basic Oxygen Process (BOP) 2) Electric-arc furnace Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) Typical basic oxygen furnace has a vertical vessel lined with refractory lining. Only 8-12 of the furnace volume is filled with the treated molten metal The vessel consists of three parts: spherical bottom, cylindrical shell and upper cone. The vessel is attached to a supporting ring equipped with trunnions. The supporting ring provides stable position of the vessel during oxygen blowing. The converter is capable to rotate about its horizontal axis on trunnions driven by electric motors. This rotation (tilting) is necessary for charging raw materials, sampling the melt and pouring the steel out of the converter. Basic Oxygen Furnace Flowchart of BOF process Figure - BOF sequence. (1) charging of scrap and (2) molten iron, (3) blowing, (4) tapping the molten steel, (5) pouring off the slag BOF Process a) Charging scrap the scrap is first to be charged b) Pour molten iron pouring molten iron from blast furnace c) Blowing starting blowing oxygen and the duration time of blowing about 20 min. d) Discharging steel Pouring the steel to a ladle. Special devices (plugs, slag detectors) prevent penetration (carry-over) of the slag into the ladle e) Discharging slag De-slagging - pouring the residual slag into the slag pot. The furnace is turned upside down in the direction opposite to the tapping hole. Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) The electric arc furnace is used to reduce iron from iron ore. Heat is generated from an electric arc between electrodes. Oxygen is blown into the furnace, and lime and other materials are added to combine with the impurities and form slag. Molten iron is extracted and poured out via a tapping spout. It is then processed again in an electric arc furnace to make steel particularly special quality steel. EAF Process Plain Carbon Steels Carbon is the principal alloying element, with only small amounts of other elements (about 0.5 manganese is normal) Strength of plain carbon steels increases with carbon content, but ductility is reduced High carbon steels can be heat treated to form martensite, making the steel very hard and strong Plain Carbon Steels Grouped by Carbon Content 1. Low carbon steels - contain less than 0.20 C Applications: automobile sheetmetal parts, plate steel for fabrication, railroad rails 2. Medium carbon steels - range between 0.20 and 0.50 C Applications: machinery components and engine parts such as crankshafts and connecting rods 3. High carbon steels - contain carbon in amounts greater than 0.50 Applications: springs The Allotrophy Of Iron Iron can exist in more than one form. Up to 910 degrees, alpha iron is in BCC form. Between 910 and 1390 degrees, gamma iron exists in FCC form. Above 1390 degrees, delta iron returns to BCC form. Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram Steel part of the Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram Eutectoid point is a solid to solid change point where solid Austenite changes into solid Pearlite. Microstructures on steel part of the Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram Iron carbon system Steel (Carbon 2.0) Eutectoid Steel (0.8 C) Hypo-eutectoid steel ( 2.0) Hypo-eutectic cast iron (2.0 12). Improves strength, elasticity, acid resistance and promotes large grain sizes, which cause increasing magnetic permeability. Improves corrosion resistance. Silicon (Si) Copper (Cu) Characteristic of structure steel Structure steels contain carbon and a higher amount of alloying elements such as nickel, chromium, manganese, cobalt, niobium and vanadium. These elements are added to improve mechanical properties, ductility and other steel service properties. Characteristic of tool mould steel Tool and mould steels contain tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt and vanadium Characteristics include high hardness, resistance to abrasion (excellent wear), an ability to hold a cutting edge, resistance to deformation at elevated temperatures (redhardness). Tool steel are generally used in a heat-treated state. High carbon content very brittle Characteristic of corrosion steel Also known as stainless steel Contain between chromium as the main alloying element Corrosion resistant for a specified application or environment. Characteristic of magnetic steel There are 3 magnetic elements 1. Iron 2. Nickel 3. Colbolt Ability of a material to carry magnetism Application - solenoid shafts Characteristic of heat resistant steel The combination of chromium (giving the steel excellent corrosion resistance) and Molybdenum (for greater tensile strength and heat resistance). Industrial applications include furnaces, heat exchanges and incinerators where temperatures can reach in excess of 1100C. Cast iron (CI) Cast iron an iron-carbon alloy containing from 2.1 to about 4 or 5 carbon Cast iron is an important alloy of Fe and C are largely used in industry for its convenience to casting in intricate and good mechanical properties. Classification of Cast Irons The best method of classifying cast iron is according to metallographic structure. There are four variables as under to be considered which lead to the different types of cast irons. Carbon content The alloy and impurity content (silicon carbon) The cooling rate during and after freezing The heat treatment after casting. Properties of cast iron Cheap material. Lower melting point (1200oC) as compared to steel (13801500oC). Good casting properties, e. g. high fluidity, low shrinkage, sound casting, ease of production in large number. CI is machinable is most cases. Good in compression but CI with ductility are also available. Abrasion resistance is remarkably high. Very important property of CI is its damping characteristics which isolates vibration and makes it good material for foundation and housing. Alloy CI may be good against corrosion. cast iron in iron-carbon phase diagram Cooling rate and type of cast iron Composition and type of cast iron Classification of cast iron Grey cast iron The cross-section show the greyish colour, hence the name grey cast iron Properties: Good machinibility High compressive strength Low tensile strength No ductility Application: U